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However, the development and commercial introduction of such novel fruits has been slow and limited with only five genetically engineered fruits currently produced as commercial varieties—virus-resistant papaya and squash were commercialized 25 years ago, whereas insect-resistant eggplant, non-browning apple, and pink-fleshed pineapple have been approved for commercialization within the last 6 years and production continues to increase every year.
Advances in molecular genetics, particularly the new wave of genome editing technologies, provide opportunities to develop new fruit cultivars more rapidly. Our review, emphasizes the socioeconomic impact of current commercial fruit cultivars developed by genetic engineering and the potential impact of genome editing on the development of improved cultivars at an accelerated rate. The conventional breeding of fruit crops can take more than two decades due to the long juvenile period of woody species 1.
Genetic engineering allows improved varieties to be developed more quickly, and the vegetative propagation of fruit trees allows the engineered cultivars to achieve coverage of larger areas than crops that depend on sexual reproduction 2.
All genetically engineered fruit crops have been produced either by Agrobacterium -mediated transformation or direct DNA transfer. In each case, the efficiency of transformation is highly dependent on the species and even cultivar, requiring the development of bespoke optimized methods consisting of efficient gene delivery, selection, and regeneration from transformed explants 2.
Most fruit tree species are highly heterozygous, and to maintain the characteristics of the original variety the transgenic events should be derived from mature tissue such as leaves rather than embryogenic explants 3.
A gene that triggers pectin solubilization was downregulated in the transgenic fruits, resulting in delayed fruit softening and an extended shelf-life 5. Several additional fruit crops with traits improved by genetic engineering have received regulatory approval for commercialization in different parts of the world, and are intended for cultivation either as human food or animal feed.
These are tomato Solanum lycopersicum 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , papaya Carica papaya L. Most of the transgenic fruits were developed to improve agronomic productivity by conferring pest or disease resistance, or delayed ripening. However, more recent products have addressed quality traits by eliminating fruit browning or adding new visual traits such as flesh color. Advances in genetic engineering, particularly the development of genome editing technologies have provided new tools for the generation of improved fruit varieties.
Many proof-of-concept examples involving fruit crops have been reported and the further development and marketing of such varieties could have a major socioeconomic impact. Here we discuss the history and current status of genetically engineered fruit crops and the promise offered by genome editing.
In recent years, several countries have amended their current regulations or have developed new guidelines to regulate genome-edited plants and its productsThis may make it possible that genome-edited fruits, similarly to all other genome-edited crops, reach the market faster in countries with a genome editing friendly policy 20 ,Here, we first discuss fruit varieties that have already been approved for commercialization, focusing on those that are on the market.
We then consider fruit varieties developed more recently using genetic engineering or genome editing, and their potential socioeconomic impact. Fruits that have been developed by genetic engineering are shown in Fig.
Some varieties were approved but not ultimately commercialized, or were launched but subsequently removed from the market, and these are not considered in detail. PRSV resistance was not found in papaya germplasm or in wild Carica species suitable as candidates for interspecific hybridization. Furthermore, insecticides failed to control the aphid vectors responsible for virus transmission 22 , and many orchards were therefore abandoned due to PRSV infestationAdditionally, Huanong No.
In , some Huanong No. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of a new virus lineage in Hainan and Guangdong papaya plantations, which may pose a threat to Huanong No. In , tomato crops in Fujian province China were affected by a virulent strain of cucumber mosaic virus CMV causing severe necrosisBoth fruits express a CMV protein gene, conferring resistance to CMV, but data concerning the performance of these cultivars have not been publishedResistance to these viruses is not found in squash germplasm, and cannot be introduced by interspecific hybridization due to hybrid incompatibility and the concomitant transfer of undesirable traitsIn Bangladesh, eggplant is the second most important fruit crop and a major source of income for small, resource-poor farmersEggplant fruits are unmarketable when infested with eggplant fruit and shoot borer EFSB larvae Leucinodes orbonalis but effective prevention requires the application of more than sprays of insecticide each season.
In addition to the detrimental impact on the environment, this accounts for more than a quarter of production costs, and there are still losses due to the prevalence of EFSBResistant cultivars have not been developed by conventional breeding 31 , but a transgenic variety producing Bacillus thuringiensis Bt toxins is resistant to EFSB has been commercializedInfestations of the Bt variety occur at a frequency of 0.
In , the average yield of Bt eggplant in Bangladesh wasFruit quality is affected by the activity of polyphenoloxidases PPOs , which oxidize phenolic compounds and cause gradual browning in fleshy fruits such as apple. PPOs are activated by exposure to oxygen, resulting in browning when fruits are damaged, peeled, or cut. Enzymatic browning can be prevented by storage in an air-free environment, the inactivation of PPOs by irradiation, or through the use of chemical inhibitors and natural antioxidantsFruits with different skin and flesh colors have been developed by conventional breeding 36 and in proof-of-concept engineering experimentsIn addition to the modulation of carotenoid accumulation, an endogenous ethylene biosynthesis gene was suppressed to control flowering, but this trait has yet to be evaluatedThe University of Hawaii established the protocol for papaya transformation by particle bombardment using zygotic embryos as the starting material 10 , 38 , whereas Huanong No.
Transgenic papaya resistant to PRSV were developed using a pathogen-derived resistance approach, in which the resistance is mediated via RNA post-transcriptional gene silencing.
The coat protein is required for virus survival outside the cell and for aphid transmissionHuanong No. The N1b and N1a proteins are needed for virus replicationSeminis Vegetable Seeds and Monsanto Company developed transgenic virus-resistant squashes inMahyco also set up its own eggplant transformation pipeline.
Cotyledons from eggplant seedlings were used as explants for Agrobacterium -mediated transformation with the Bt cry1Ac gene, producing the EE-1 transgenic varietyQuinones are produced from diphenols in a reaction catalyzed by PPO, and their condensation with amino acids and proteins generates lignin-like compounds that cause browning.
Cell damage is needed for plastidial PPO to act on vacuolar substrates, which is why browning only occurs in cut or otherwise damaged fruitTen years later, this transgenic pineapple was patented in the USDel Monte also patented the transformation method, which involved the cultivation of organogenic pineapple cells with A.
Ethylene promotes flowering in pineapple, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1 carboxylic acid ACC is the immediate ethylene precursor in plantsThe USA has issued the most approvals for transgenic fruit cultivation either for human consumption or as animal feed. Depending on its characteristics, a genetically engineered fruit may fall under the jurisdiction of one or more of these agenciesAPHIS regulates the environmental release of genetically engineered organisms that may pose a risk to plant health, the EPA oversees pesticides, including genetically engineered plants expressing plant incorporated protectants PIP , and the FDA ensures the safety of all human food and animal feed also from plant origin.
These lines were also approved as food and feed. The Da, B, and F lines were intended for processing 4. Between and , more than 1. In Health Canada also approved line , which was resistant to insect pests, but it has not been released onto the marketThe company also requested the deregulation of these lines, but withdrew the APHIS petition the same year 19 , and neither line has been commercialized.
This cultivar is grown on a single farm in Costa Rica. It was patented in the US in , but no trees have been planted thus far and it is therefore not on the market.
On request, the Agricultural Research Service the research branch of the USDA can freely provide a limited number of heat-treated bud wood samples to be used as a genetic resource for the breeding of PPV-resistant varietiesGenetically engineered squash has been on the US market for 25 years. CZW3 squash is also approved for import as food by Health CanadaCanada and Japan are the major importers of genetically engineered papaya produced in the US, although it is also approved for cultivation in JapanNeither lines have been commercialized 4.
The NBC can recommend safety certification based on product testing and field trials, but only the MOA can formally provide regulatory clearanceHuafan No. Similarly, the genetically engineered sweet pepper PK-SP01 developed by Beijing University was approved for cultivation and for human consumption, but the extent of its cultivation is unclearThe eggplant varieties Bari Bt Begun 1, 2, 3, and 4 were approved for cultivation and food use in Bangladesh, and in they are the only genetically engineered fruit commercialized in this country 29 ,The socioeconomic impact of genetically engineered fruits is growing with the scale of cultivation, although less than 0.
Production and adoption rate details are provided in Table 1. CMV-resistant sweet pepper and tomato have been cultivated in China since and , respectively, in Beijing municipality and in Fujian and Yunnan provinces, but the scale of cultivation is unclearData on the profitability of PRSV-resistant papaya have not been published by the Chinese authorities, so the socioeconomic impact is difficult to judgeIn the US, PRSV-resistant papaya has been commercially grown in Hawaii since and it has prevented the collapse of the Hawaiian papaya industry due to the prevalence of PRSV in orchards of conventional varietiesThe shrinking Japanese market partly reflected the reluctance of retailers to handle genetically engineered products and partly the increased competition from Philippine papaya growers 4.
Cultivation of PRSV-resistant papaya in Hawaii has also reduced the threat of PRSV in the Puna district, allowing papaya growers to cultivate non-transgenic varieties alongside the genetically engineered cropVirus-resistant squash has been commercially grown in the US since , mainly in Florida and Georgia. Eggplant is mostly grown by resource-poor farmers, who can obtain seed at no or minimal cost from three organizations: BARI, the Department of Agricultural Extension, and the Bangladesh Agricultural Corporation.
Accordingly, the cost of this technology to the farmers is near zeroThe Bt eggplant was initially provided to 20 farmers, but by , the variety had been adopted by 20, farmersAs well as the direct income gains, Bt eggplant also helps to reduce pesticides.
This difference solely represents the cost of pesticides to control EFSB because different chemicals are used to control other pests. Genetic engineering can be used to investigate the functions of genes and to exploit these functions for the improvement of traits such as biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, flowering time, ripening, fruit flavor, and nutrient content.
In this section, we discuss genetic engineering and genome editing technologies that have been used for the enhancement of target traits in fruit crops, which may facilitate commercialization in the future Table 2. Use of CRISPR and associated genome editing technologies for the development or enhancement of fruit crops may open the door to new commercial opportunities, potentially circumventing restrictions on GM crops in many parts of the worldWhile marketability will vary by country, additional, transgene-free cultivars may be accessible to consumers in the near future 20 , 73 ,Pathogens and pests are severe constraints affecting the growth and development of fruit trees, the development and ripening of fruits, and the quality of fruit products.
In many cases, conventional breeding for resistance is not possible because strong resistance is not present in available germplasm and the introgression process would take too long 2. One strategy to enhance disease resistance in fruit crops is the modification of receptors that directly interact with or perceive the presence of a specific pathogen. In apple, overexpression of the HcrVf2 gene encoding such a receptor resulted in near-complete resistance to fungal scab Venturia inaequalis
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Plant Biotechnology. Develop crops with specific traits using genetic engineering, molecular biology and traditional plant breeding. Horticulture.
In more than 25 years of its existence, the department has promoted and accelerated the pace of research and development of biotechnology in the country. The department has made significant achievements in the growth and application of biotechnology in the broad areas of agriculture, health care, animal sciences, environment, and industry. The objective of this website is to facilitate and disseminate the statutory requirements to be adhered by the researchers who are undertaking research work using modern biotechnology tools. The stepwise procedures to be adopted for development of transgenic crops, r-DNA therapeutics etc. The primary purpose of this website is to make available objective and realistic scientific information relating to GMOs and products thereof under research and commercial use to all stakeholders including scientists, regulators, industry and the public in general. It is also expected to promote collaborations and avoid duplication of work. The department is organized into 24 divisions, 20 subordinate offices including directorates as directorate of cotton development, directorate of sugarcane development etc and seven autonomous bodies. The Department also participates in activities of international organizations, for fostering bilateral cooperation in agricultural and allied sectors and for promotion of export in agricultural commodities.
Genetically modified GM crops are plants used in agriculture that have had their DNA modified through gene technology with examples of results such as the following:. This scheme assesses the health and environmental impacts of GM crops before they are approved for use by farmers. Products of GM organisms such as foods or medicine are regulated under a product specific scheme. Learn more about the coexistence of GM and non-GM crop production systems.
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Inspiring excellence. Transforming lives. Plant Breeding is the art and the science of manipulating heritability in plants for human benefit. Manipulation can be done by conventional breeding techniques or on DNA level with genetic engineering. The plant breeder has a busy daily routine that includes greenhouse work, field activities, laboratory research, and office tasks.
Download Institute booklet. Plant protection matters - whether in a small vegetable patch or a complex forest ecosystems. The Institute for Plant Protection in Horticulture and Forests combines research, policy advice and statutory tasks in the context of authorising plant protection products. We are dealing with harmful organisms in a wide range of cultures: in horticulture, forests, urban green and home gardening. Our studies include the biology of pests, the pathogenesis of plant diseases and vertebrate research in cropping systems to foster and develop targeted, integrated and sustainable plant protection approaches. This includes extensive investigations on the biology and the spread of harmful organisms as well as their integrated control on horticultural crops vegetables, ornamentals, nursery crops, spices and herbs and forests. Another important task is the evaluation of the efficacy of plant protection products.
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You need an eReader or compatible software to experience the benefits of the ePub3 file format. About IOP ebooks. This chapter introduces biotechnology, and relates its development throughout human history. The authors then describe the scope of biotechnology and its modern applications.
Give the full details of concerned officer. The department runs the plant biotechnology laboratory. Note: Chemical and other charges will be borne by candidates other than above charges. Level Dr. Mahak Singh 1,44, Ag , Ph.
We are quick to notice and utilize some plant mutations while others go undetected. Health and survival of an organism depends on reliable and accurate DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid replication and orderly cell division.
The Department of Plant Sciences along with the fully integrated Crop Development Centre CDC , provide a truly unique experience to students by offering teaching and research programs focusing on the physiology, development management and production of field and horticultural crops on the Canadian prairies and the management of non-arable lands. We are the only plant sciences department in Canada capable of offering such a diverse experience in plant studies. Interactions between plants and their environment are studied at levels from molecular, individuals, populations, communities, and landscapes. Studies are conducted in a wide range of ecosystems including grasslands, forests, wetlands, and arctic tundra. Past and current research projects include plant species and genetic diversity, plant responses to climate change, vegetation dynamics in ecotones, ecosystem carbon balance, greenhouse gas emissions, conservation of species at risk, restoration ecology, fire ecology, and primary productions. Determining best organic weed control systems through the use of tillage, cultural methods and crop rotations are studied in both field and horticultural crops.