There are very few nut-bearing breeds that can withstand the climate of Central Russia and the North-West. One of the methods to increase their number can be the introduction (resettlement) and introduction into the culture of two types of nuts growing on opposite ends of the globe: the gray nut, common in the northeastern states of the United States and Canada; and the Siebold nut or ailantholist, an endemic species (growing in a small area) in our Far East, on the island of Kunashir and southern Sakhalin, listed in the Red Book in Russia and Japan.
Both of them have already been successfully and repeatedly, although in small quantities, they were grown in the Central region and in the North-West. Let's consider their advantages and disadvantages.
Gray walnut (Juglans cinerea L.) - at home grows into a tree up to 30 m high and about a meter in diameter. The crown is broadly rounded, of medium density, does not lend itself to formation. It is short-lived, occasionally lives up to 150 years, but on average no more than 75. It grows quickly, faster than walnut, but for good growth requires deep, fresh and moist fertile enough and loose loamy or sandy loam soils.
He especially loves to grow along the banks of reservoirs. It is not resistant to drought, as well as to smoke and gases. In terms of frost resistance, it is close to the Manchurian. It is winter-hardy in the Leningrad region. Only in very harsh winters can the ends of the shoots freeze slightly here.
However, it can be beaten, especially in youth, by spring frosts, but it quickly recovers. In closed lowlands and hollows, as a result of regular damage, it takes on a bushy or multi-peaked shape, so such places for planting should be avoided. Heat-resistant and photophilous, but in youth it is quite shade-tolerant.
The bark is light gray, finely fractured. The kidneys are grayish. Shoots are greenish gray or reddish brown. The root system is mixed, with a short taproot and numerous lateral roots. The leaves are pinnate, dark green above, lighter below, alternate, 40-75 cm long, consist of 11-19 leaflets with a jagged edge.
Blooms in late May, early June, simultaneously with Manchurian walnut. Pollinated by the wind. In the period of fruiting begins at 6-10 years, bears fruit annually. Fruits are collected in bunches of 2-6 pcs. on a long, about 10 cm petiole.
They are oblong-ovate, pointed, 6-10 cm long. Nuts are oblong, dark brown, wrinkled, with a sharp top, up to 5 cm long and up to 2.5 cm in diameter. Externally, they are very similar to Manchu. Ripen in October. The shell is thick, very hard, the kernel is medium-sized, but larger than that of the Manchu, sweet, oily (fat content - 57-65%). The average weight of the nut is 13.4 g, the kernel is 2.4 g.
The latter, along with walnut kernels, are used in the confectionery industry. Sweet juice can be extracted from the trunk by tapping. The wood is light, has a beautiful texture, but is fragile, well sanded and polished, suitable for the manufacture of furniture.
The species was introduced in our country for a long time, but the planting area is not large. Gray walnut can be grown in gardens, parks, forest parks. Like all nuts, this is a very beautiful, powerful and decorative tree, suitable for creating tapeworms, biogroup alleys.
It regenerates well with shoots from a stump, which can be successfully turned into layering. It is difficult to reproduce by cuttings. The best selective forms are replicated by grafting. But the main type of reproduction is still seed. Sowing is done in the spring after a 5-month stratification, or in the fall. It is the autumn sowing that gives the best results.
You should not be afraid of freezing seeds. Before sowing, it is advisable to spray them with kerosene from murine rodents. Spring sowing should be done as early as possible. In a nursery, the planting depth should be 7-8, and when sowing in a permanent place - 10 cm, the nuts should be placed with their tip up.
Seeding rate 12-15 pcs. for 1 running meter. Crops do not need watering and shelter, but weeding and loosening after germination is required. In the first year, seedlings usually reach 15-20 cm in height and 0.5 cm in diameter. The optimal placement of trees on the site is 10 x 10 m.
In the North-West, plantings of gray walnut are found singularly, but in the Middle Belt and to the south - quite often. The view is very decorative and good for group plantings in landscape parks.
Zibold's nut or ailantholist (Juglans siboldiana Vfxsim., Sin. Ailanthifolia Carr.), Grows in Russia on Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands. The distribution area in our country is very small, and continues to decline. Abroad - found in the mountains of Japan. In addition, its especially valuable subspecies grows there - the heart-shaped nut (Ssp. Cordiformis Max.), Which gives nuts of a heart-shaped, strongly flattened shape, with a thin shell.
Siebold's nut is a tall-stemmed tree, 20-25 m in height and about 1 m in diameter. Grows in groups and singly. Highly decorative. Possesses fast growth. Life expectancy is 200-300 years. The bark is greenish-gray, the branches are light gray with a yellowish tinge. The wood has excellent technical properties, it is used for the manufacture of furniture and gun boxes.
The crown is wide, sparsely branched, young shoots are thick. The leaves are alternate, green, 40-60 (sometimes up to 100) cm long and up to 40 cm wide, with 9-21 leaflets and a brownish petiole; collected at the ends of the branches.
The species tolerates air pollution well. They have a high ability to clean the air from gasoline vapors, and other gaseous and dusty impurities. Therefore, it is advisable to grow it in places with polluted air to purify the latter.
Monodomain, blooms in the first half of May. Flowers are collected in 10-20 pieces. Abundant fruiting. Fruits in the hairy pericarp have a round or ovoid shape, measuring 5 by 4 cm, collected in a brush up to 20 pcs.
Nuts 2-4 cm long, flat-round or ovoid with two ribs and a sharp top, almost smooth; more like walnuts than Manchu.
The shell is relatively thin, but hard, the nucleolus is not large, it makes up to 30% of the walnut mass, very tasty, the fat content is up to 63%. Nuts are of nutritional and technical importance; they ripen at the end of September - October. The tree bears fruit from 5-8 years.
The species is thermophilic, but at the same time winter-hardy, it freezes slightly only in the most severe winters. Like the previous one, it is damaged by return frosts in May - early June, so it is better to place it in elevated places. It grows well in the middle zone and the North-West, promising for cultivation in the Leningrad region.
Demanding on soil fertility. Propagated mainly by seeds. The depth of their embedding for autumn sowing is 10-12 cm, for spring (after stratification) - 6-8 cm.
Before sowing, they must be treated with kerosene from murine rodents. Reproduction is also possible by cuttings, their rooting rate, even without the use of growth stimulants, reaches 30%. It reproduces well by grafting.
It is not easy to get the planting material of both of the above-described species, especially the latter, but if desired, it is still possible. Either by discharging them from the places of their original growth, or by collecting nuts from fruiting introduced trees. The latter is preferable. Trees grown from such seeds will be even better adapted to the local climate.
candidate of agricultural sciences
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• Cultivation of Manchurian nuts near St. Petersburg
• Cultivation of Manchurian nuts
• American black walnut
• Introduction of walnuts to the north
• Experience in growing walnut crops in the northern and eastern regions
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In the Moscow region, several species of trees from the walnut family successfully grow (wild-growing in forests, hazelnut or hazel belongs to the birch family). Almost always, trees of this family were specially planted by humans and grow only a few specimens in one place, in contrast, for example, from the Far East, where they grow in forests.
The most famous walnut, unfortunately, is heavily frozen in the Moscow region and therefore practically does not occur. There are some more frost-resistant varieties, but they can freeze too much.
Let us now consider the types of nuts that can please us with fruits even in the northern, colder part of the Moscow region.
The first, 5 years ago, to settle on my site is the Manchurian nut. During an excursion to the botanical garden of Moscow State University, I collected several dozen fruits from the trees growing there. Perhaps they were hybrids with other types of walnut, since they are successfully pollinated. In the fall, I buried the nuts on the site, and in the spring they began to sprout. The first year I did not touch them, and then I realized, after reading the literature, that when the trees become adults, they will cover half of the 6-acre plot with a shadow (the height of an adult tree can reach 20 meters). Therefore, the nuts were first transplanted into containers, and after a couple of years I dug planting holes at the edge of the forest and planted seedlings that had grown to a height of 70-80 cm.
I immediately transplanted two nuts from the site into the forest, without preparing planting holes. One nut has not overwintered, and the second is very poorly developed and almost does not grow. It looks like they didn't have enough nutrition in the poor forest soil, moreover, it has a slightly acidic reaction, and the nuts need a neutral one.
Manchurian nut seedlings planted in prepared holes, on the contrary, showed excellent growth. During the year, the gains amounted to almost one meter.
After 2 years, I managed to once again collect Manchu nuts at the Moscow State University Botanical Garden. I buried them again in the fall on the site. In the spring, when they started to rise, I immediately placed them in containers. It turned out more than 50 seedlings, which I successfully sold.
The next year, in the spring, about 30 more nut seedlings grew in the same place (it has such a feature that part of the nuts is included only in the second year). I had to plant the nuts in containers again. This year I have both one-year and two-year-old Manchurian walnut seedlings for sale.
Manchurian walnut can withstand temperatures below 40 degrees. My seedlings winter outside under the snow. They write that the leaves of this tree secrete substances that repel mosquitoes. My saplings, planted at the edge of the forest, are still small, but it seems that last year there really were fewer mosquitoes (or maybe it was just such a year). The fruit of the Manchu nut is very similar to the walnut, but the shell is more durable. To crack it, you need a hammer and a fair amount of skill. The kernel is smaller than that of a walnut with a strong septum. But from the sawn shells of a Manchurian nut, very beautiful patterns are obtained.
Gray walnut is very similar to Manchu. It comes from North America and is distinguished by the gray color of the branches (in the Manchu they are brown). Grows in the botanical gardens of Moscow.
This year, I managed to obtain heart nuts and Siebold nuts through an exchange. I'll start with the heart-shaped nut. In the photo he is below. The fruits are small in size (up to 3 cm in length), but the shell is easily pricked with tongs. The core is easily separated and contains no septa. The heart-shaped nut tastes better than the walnut, since it has no bitterness. According to reference books in Moscow, the heart-shaped nut grows up to 10 meters high. This size, in my opinion, is more acceptable for a summer cottage. Moreover, this nut is self-pollinated. For fruiting, it is enough to plant one tree, but for a larger yield, it is better to grow at least a couple. The winter hardiness of the heart-shaped nut is lower than that of the Manchurian. In some years, it can freeze slightly, but it quickly recovers.
The Siebold nut (fruits in the photo above) grows in the same large tree as the Manchu walnut. With winter hardiness and shell hardness, the Siebold nut is also close to the Manchurian nut. It differs in a smaller nut with a sharp tip. Removing the core is also difficult due to the rigid septum. Due to the thick shell, which hides some of the free space inside the nut, the size of the Siebold nut kernel is comparable to the size of the kernel of the heart-shaped nut (although the fruits of the latter are smaller in size).
Of all the nuts listed, due to the ease of extraction of the tasty kernel and the small height of the tree, my favorite was the heart-shaped nut. It is also worth mentioning that all of the listed types of nuts are quite decorative. Their pinnate leaves often reach a length of 1 meter.
I also have mountain ash (or Chekalkin walnut), but it, like hazel, does not belong to the walnut family. I raised it from seeds. In the last year in a container, it has grown to only 10 cm in height. So he went to winter in the cellar. In mid-March, he woke up. The buds began to open. Now it stands on the windowsill and has already grown new shoots up to 15 cm long. This nut behaves very capriciously in the Moscow region, but amateurs will try to tame it, because of its decorative and exotic nature. It has delicate foliage that vaguely resembles rowan leaves and beautiful flowering. The fruits are also very unusual. In each box the size of a walnut, a dozen small round nuts, similar to hazelnuts, and with a thin shell ripen at once. The tree often grows as a bush, up to 3 meters high. Unfortunately, amateurs note that in the Moscow region Chekalkin walnut often freezes and dies from fungal diseases.
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The crown is wide-rounded, of medium density, does not lend itself to formation. It is not durable, occasionally lives up to 150 years, but on average no more than 75.
Butternut grows quickly (faster than walnut). However, for good growth, it requires deep, fresh and moist, sufficiently fertile and loose loamy or sandy loam soils. Butternut especially likes to grow along the banks of water bodies. To drought, as well as to smoke and gases: not resistant.
In terms of frost resistance, this species is close to the Manchurian, only in severe winters the ends of the shoots freeze slightly. It can be beaten, especially in youth, by spring frosts, but it recovers quickly.
In closed lowlands and hollows, as a result of regular damage, it can take on a bushy or multi-peaked shape, so such planting sites should be avoided.Heat-resistant and photophilous, but in his youth it is quite shade-tolerant.
Bark nut gray light gray, finely fractured. The kidneys are grayish. Shoots are greenish gray or reddish brown. The root system is mixed, with a short taproot and numerous lateral roots.
The leaves are feathery, dark green above and lighter below, alternate, 40-75 cm long, with 11-19 leaves. It blooms in late May - early June, simultaneously with the Manchurian walnut. Pollinated by the wind.
In the period of fruiting begins at 6-10 years, bears fruit annually. Fruits are collected in bunches of 26 pcs. on a long, about 10 cm, petiole. They are oblong-ovate, pointed, 6-10 cm long.
Nuts in them are also oblong, dark brown, wrinkled, with a sharp top, dark brown, up to 5 cm long and up to 2.5 cm in diameter. Outwardly, they are very similar to those of our Manchurian walnut.
Ripen in October. The shell is thick, the kernel is not very large, but larger than that of the Manchu, sweet, oily (fat content - 57-65%). The average weight of the nut is 13.4 g, the kernel is 2.4 g.
The latter, along with walnut kernels, are used in the confectionery industry. Sweet juice is extracted from the trunk by undercutting. The wood is light, not strong, but has a beautiful texture, is well sanded and polished, therefore it is suitable for the production of furniture.
Butternut introduced in our country for a long time, but the planting area is small. It can be grown in gardens, parks, forest parks. Like all nuts, it is a very beautiful, powerful and decorative tree.
Butternut suitable for creating tapeworms, alleys, biogroups. It is well renewed by shoots from a stump, the shoots of which can be successfully turned into layering. It is difficult to reproduce by cuttings.
The best selective forms are replicated by grafting. But the main type of reproduction is still seed. Sowing is carried out in the spring after a 5-month stratification, or in the fall.
It is the latter that gives the best results. You should not be afraid of freezing seeds. Before sowing, it is advisable to spray them with kerosene from murine rodents.
Spring sowing should be done as early as possible. In the nursery, the planting depth should be 7-8, and when sowing to a permanent place - 10 cm, they should be placed with the tip up.
Seeding rate 12-15 pcs. for 1 running meter. Crops do not need watering and shelter, but weeding and loosening after germination is required.
In the first year, seedlings usually reach 15-20 cm in height and 0.5 cm in diameter. The optimal placement on the site is 10x10 m. In the North-West, plantings of gray walnut are rare, but in the middle lane and to the south - quite often. Very decorative and good for group plantings in landscape parks
So, in a nutshell, once again about Butternut
Life form: Deciduous tree
Crown: Broadly ovate, sometimes spreading, sparse.
Growth rate: Fast. Annual growth is 50 cm in height and 50 cm in spread.
The height and diameter of the crown is 20-30 m.
Durability: 300 years
Flowers: Flat, rounded, yellow-green, 0.5 cm.
Leaves: Oval, gray-green in spring and summer, brown in autumn, from 50 to 70 cm.
Decorativeness: Gray walnut is beautiful with its large feathery foliage and openwork crown.
Using: Alleys, single plantings, decorative groups.
to moisture: medium-demanding
to temperature: frost-resistant
Homeland: Atlantic States of North America.
The beneficial properties of gray walnut are due to its extremely rich natural composition. Nut kernels contain several dozen active substances - vitamins, micro- and macroelements, nonessential and irreplaceable amino acids, as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids Omega.
The benefits of gray walnut:
Oil is extracted from the kernels of the gray walnut, which is used in cooking and cosmetology. It speeds up skin healing for acne, cuts, abrasions, wounds and burns. The oil is added to cosmetics to combat wrinkles and dry skin.
Gray walnut juice is used in folk medicine for inhalation for flu and colds. This natural remedy helps fight coughs, reduces redness and inflammation in the larynx, cleanses the bronchi and makes breathing easier.
Kernels are used in cooking similarly to walnuts, for the preparation of pastries, fruit salads and baked goods.
The fruits of the gray walnut have a minimum of contraindications. These include only a stomach ulcer, thrombophlebitis, exacerbation of gastritis and allergic intolerance.
The gray walnut is a beautiful and powerful tree that is popular with gardeners and landscape designers. Its cultivation requires the creation of favorable conditions and compliance with the rules of agricultural technology. But as a result, you can not only decorate the garden area, but also get a generous harvest of tasty and healthy fruits.
Plants are wind-pollinated. Male flowers are collected in multi-flowered catkins at the base of growing shoots, female flowers are single or 2-3 at the ends of the shoots. The fruits are large, green, numerous, in spectacular clusters.
Genus name derived from Latin words Jovis - "Jupiter" and glans - "nut".
There are about 20 species in the genus, common in temperate and tropical regions of the Northern Hemisphere, seven species grow in the Far East and the Caucasus and Central Asia, in Russia - three.
Deciduous tree, in nature up to 25 m high and 0.6-0.7 (up to 1 m) in diameter with a broad, transparent crown of rounded shape. The bark is dark gray, fissured. Beautiful odd-pinnate leaves are very large, up to 1.2 m long. When rubbed, they emit a characteristic iodine odor. Siebold's nut (Juglans sieboldiana) it is distinguished by very long earrings and more round and small nuts.
The species is shade-tolerant, in frosty winters young shoots freeze over, and in spring the blossoming leaves suffer from frost, but both the shoots and the crown quickly recover.
In addition to the Manchurian walnut in culture in the middle lane, they grow gray walnut (Juglans cinere) and black walnut (Juglans nigra). Popular view walnut (Juglans regia) very sensitive to frost, has long been widely cultivated in the southern regions. It is promising for obtaining winter-hardy hybrids with Manchurian walnut.
The tree is up to 30 cm tall and has a powerful light gray trunk up to 1 m in diameter. Growing fast. The crown is widely spreading, openwork. Young shoots are red-brown, pubescent. Leaves are pinnate, up to 79 cm long, with 11-19 sessile narrow ovate leaflets. In summer, the leaves are light green, in autumn they are bright yellow. It blooms in late May and early June. Male flowers - long earrings are quite decorative. Fruits are collected in small clusters of 3-5, ripen at the end of September. The nuts are covered with a green pericarp. The nut itself is with a prickly shell. Fruiting from the age of 14.
A tree with a height of 20-30 meters and more and a trunk diameter of up to 1.5 m. The crown is dense, broadly round. Leaves are odd-pinnate, 5-9 leaflets, elliptical, pointed, glossy, dark green, very fragrant when rubbed. Male inflorescences are yellow-green earrings up to 12 cm long, female inflorescences are greenish or reddish, spherical. Fruits are spherical drupes, large, up to 5 cm long. Blooms in July; fruits ripen in October.
Kind, warm, light and moisture-loving. Prefers ordinary lime-rich garden soils.
Many types of walnut are light-requiring, fast-growing and durable. O. Manchurian needs fertile moist soils, in hot weather it needs regular watering. Reacts well to crown sprinkling.
The plot on which about. Manchu must be protected from the wind, as the air currents damage the large leaves of the plant. It does not tolerate a transplant, therefore, if necessary, it is preferable to carry it out in early spring.
It multiplies well by sowing before winter, undergrowth from the stump and grafting.
Thanks to the powerful tent-like crown with very large feathery leaves, these majestic plants look great in single plantings. The wide crown is able to cover a significant area with a pleasant transparent shade. Large walnut plants are used for open areas to create a privacy effect.