Various varieties of cherries have long been cultivated in Central Russia. These are both early and late, large-fruited and not very, sweet and not quite, tall and dwarf. These include both ordinary cherries and steppe and felt cherries. The novice gardener will have to familiarize himself with the features of all varieties suitable for growing in this region in order to make the right choice.
In the State Register, there are three types of cherries approved for cultivation in Russia. These are felt cherries, common cherries and steppe cherries. There is also ornamental cherry and Sakhalin cherry, but since they are barren, they will not be considered here.
Most of the varieties of felt and steppe cherries are unpretentious and frost-resistant, therefore they are allowed for cultivation in all regions, including in the Middle Lane. Common cherry varieties are most often thermophilic and can grow only in the southern regions, but there are also frost-resistant ones.
Usually cherries for good fruiting need to be adjacent to other varieties of cherries or cherries for cross-pollination. But there are so-called self-fertile (or self-pollinated) varieties, which have both female and male flowers, due to which dependence on neighbors is significantly reduced. Some have flowers in such a shape that pollination can take place inside an unopened bud. This property allows you to get a harvest even under unfavorable conditions - strong wind, low activity or absence of bees and other insects, neighbors for pollination.
By definition, self-fertile varieties include those in which 40% (or more) of the ovaries of the total number of flowers are independently formed. In partially self-fertile, this figure is 20%.
But in any case, if possible, it is advisable to plant pollinating trees next to the cherries, which will significantly increase the number of ovaries, and as a result, the yield.
When choosing a variety for planting, you must also remember that self-fertile varieties are often susceptible to fungal diseases. Of course, trees that are resistant or moderately resistant to disease should be preferred.
The variety is relatively old; it has been listed in the State Register since 1947. You can expect the first harvest from a short tree 4 years after planting.
Amorel Pink cherry begins to bear fruit in the 5th year after planting
This variety is a table variety with low transportability. The yield, depending on the growing conditions, ranges from 4 to 15 kg.
A widely known cherry variety with high drought and frost resistance.
The youth are happy with the harvest for 15–20 years, if they receive the necessary care. She has large, fleshy berries of a dark burgundy color.
You can get a harvest from Molodezhnaya cherry for 15-20 years
The variety was included in the State Register in 1997. A medium-sized tree has good frost resistance, but at temperatures below -30 ° C, the buds suffer. Therefore, in severe frosts, it is advisable to use smoke bombs or fires to save berries.
The yield of the variety is up to 70 kg / ha. Cherry fruits are dark red.
Cherry Volochaevka has a good yield
Shrub cherry varieties are distinguished by the absence of the main trunk (trunk), instead of which several equivalent shoots grow from the root. Usually they have a small height, rarely reaching 3 m, and more often 1.5–2.5 m.
As a rule, bush varieties are felt and steppe cherries. As already noted, these species are resistant to frost and are distributed throughout Russia.
This is a felt cherry. The beauty was obtained in the Far East and entered in the State Register in 1999. It is self-fertile, so pollinators will be needed to get good yields. The tree is best propagated by green cuttings and layering. Has good decorative properties.
The berries ripen together at the end of July. The yield is high, up to 11 kg per bush. The transportability of the berries is insufficient.
The berries of the Krasavitsa felt cherry are poorly transported
Cherries are resistant to coccomycosis, with waterlogging they can be affected by moniliosis.
Delight is a Far Eastern selection of felt cherries. She is self-fertile, frost-resistant. It blooms and bears fruit on both annual and perennial shoots.
The buds of the tree bloom in mid-May, the berries ripen at the same time, in mid-July.
Delight felt cherries ripen in mid-July
Average yield - 10 kg per bush.
Flora is a relatively new variety of steppe cherry, which was obtained in the Urals and entered into the State Register in 2011.
It has all the advantages of its species, which came to us from North America, and is widespread in the gardens of Siberia and throughout Russia. The genus of steppe cherries is also called sand cherries and micro cherries.
The steppe cherry of the Flora variety is considered relatively young
Advantages of the variety:
After ripening, the berries of the Flora cherries can hang on the branches for a long time without loss of quality, without crumbling.
Dwarf cherry varieties are popular everywhere, including in Central Russia. This is due to the compact shape of the plants, ease of care and harvesting. Almost all varieties of felt and steppe cherries are low in height and fit into this category. But among the representatives of the common cherry, there are also undersized counterparts.
Anthracite is a low-growing variety of ordinary cherry, which was obtained in the Oryol region and entered into the State Register in 2006.
Possesses high frost resistance, satisfactory drought resistance. Partial self-fertility. Begins fruiting in the 4th-5th year.
It blooms in mid-May; harvest can be expected on July 10-15. Anthracite cherry berries have a rich, black-red color.
Anthracite cherry harvest ripens in July
The crop of Christina cherries corresponds to the size of the bush - from 2.9 to 4.5 kg, which are harvested at the end of July. The bright red berries have a pleasant, sweet and sour taste.
Cherry varieties Christina have a good yield
The Tamaris variety has increased winter hardiness and resistance to coccomycosis. Self-fertile.
Tamaris cherries have purple berries
The yield of Tamaris is above average (65–80 kg / ha). The cherry has large purple berries.
As a rule, the earlier a cherry ripens, the more sour the berry. Some of the best early varieties for the Middle Lane are the following.
Shpanka Bryanskaya is one of the most successful hybrids of cherry and sweet cherry. Possesses increased resistance to frost, diseases and pests. Self-fertile.
Shpanka Bryanskaya is a hybrid of cherry and sweet cherry
The Malyshka variety is also a hybrid of cherry and sweet cherry.
Disadvantages of the variety:
Cherry berries Baby are large, bright red
Cherries with a high sugar content are usually found in cherry hybrids (the so-called dukes). This is a promising and tempting direction; many breeders around the world are working on it. Enough dukes have been received in the post-Soviet space.
The Zhivitsa variety of Belarusian selection, entered in the State Register in 2002 in the Central region of Belarus, but now it is successfully grown throughout the country, in Ukraine and in central Russia.
Cherry is winter-hardy, resistant to typical diseases of the culture. It brings its first harvests in the fourth year after planting.
Berries of the Belarusian variety of cherries Zhivitsa have a pleasant, harmonious taste
Productivity 10-14 t / ha with a planting scheme of 5x3 m. Berries with a pleasant, harmonious taste.
Shokoladnitsa is a very popular variety for Central Russia; it has been listed in the State Register since 1996.
It blooms in mid-May, you can feast on the fruits already in mid-July.
Cherry berries Chocolate medium-sized, almost black
Cherry brings up to 77 centners per hectare annually of magnificent, juicy berries. They are medium in size, almost black in color.
In Central Russia, there are not so many large-fruited cherry varieties.
The variety in Memory of Yenikeev is universal, early, self-fertile. Possesses good winter hardiness.
Cherry in Memory of Yenikeev has a good yield
The yield is 8-10 kg per tree, or up to 46 kg / ha.
Variety Zhuravka was included in the State Register in 2001 for the Central Region.
Cherry yield is 37–46 kg / ha.
Cherry yield Zhuravka - more than 30 kg / ha
The varieties and types of cherries grown in Central Russia, thanks to the efforts of breeders, have approached in quality the varieties of sunny, southern regions. Of course, they are not so large and sweet, but often the difference can no longer be felt. It is important that these wonderful, healthy berries can be had on their table by anyone who does not make such great efforts to grow them.
Hello! My name is Pyotr Vladimirovich. I am 63 years old. By education - a mechanical engineer.
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Cherries are considered one of the most winter-hardy stone fruit trees, so it is not surprising that they are so widespread in gardens and plots. Today, there are about 150 varieties of cherry trees, of which only 20 are found in Russia and on the territory of the CIS countries.
Cherries prefer to grow in fertile water and air permeable soil. It cannot be planted in lowlands and in places where groundwater flows (no closer than 1.5-2 m), this can provoke freezing of roots and fruit buds, rotting of the root system due to stagnant water.
After planting, the ground around the seedling is regularly loosened, making it easier for air to reach the roots, and cleaned of weeds (you can mulch the near-trunk circle). The growing root shoots are cut off at the very ground, preventing its spread. Young seedlings should be watered regularly in the first years after planting. Normally, about 12 waterings are carried out per season, and if the summer is dry, this amount can be increased.
Over time, if the yield of the tree and the growth of young growth falls, rejuvenating pruning is carried out. This is done in early spring, while the cherry is in the winter dormancy stage. Places of cuts are treated with garden varnish.
Sweet cherry Annushka is a fruit crop variety that is used on a farm. It is distinguished by its special taste. Easy to transport, considered high yielding and disease resistant. Pests cannot spoil the crop, damage the fruit and the tree itself.
Sweet cherries of this variety are planted by private enterprises and farms. Anyone can plant Annushka on their own and achieve good fruiting. This is a mid-early variety that represents the Ukrainian breeding school.
For the first time, the variety was bred at home - at the Donetsk Institute of Horticulture UAAS. The author is LI Tatarenko. In her work, she used cross-cultivars with the help of pollination, and as a base she took the cultures of Donchanka and Valery Chkalov. Unlike its "predecessors", Annushka's cherry is more resistant to frost, which allows harvesting even in late autumn.
In 2000, the sweet cherry variety Annushka was entered in the State Register of the Russian Federation for the North Caucasian region of the country. Endurance tests were held there. Annushka proved to be an ideal culture, especially in climatic zones with unstable weather conditions.
The sweet cherry variety Annushka has large fruits - up to 10 grams. This feature makes it possible to compete with world varieties. The tree of the variety is tall, and its height reaches almost 5 m. The shoots are straight, thickened. They form a spherical crown, which is of medium density.
Buds are mixed, mainly located on growth shoots. The leaves are also different from other cherry varieties. They are large in shape, slightly lightened. The oblong ovoid structure of the plate ends with a point, and has teeth on the sides. The leaf itself is attached to the trunk due to the one and a half centimeter petiole.
The cultivation of sweet cherry Annushka is distinguished by its process, or rather, by the sequence of the appearance of inflorescences. White flowers have five petals, but they are combined into umbellate inflorescences, as a rule, 4-5 pieces each. But on the shoots, the flowers come out before the leaves, which is uncharacteristic for other varieties of sweet cherries.
Sweet cherries have great nutritional value. Annushka fruits contain many vitamins. In more detail, it is worth considering the indicators of the fruits:
Taste qualities of cherries
Above average sweetness, dessert flavor
Juicy pulp with a dense structure, crunchy reddish surface
Round shape with a pressed base at the tail
The drupe is common, the core with the bone is easily separated from the pulp. The bone is small, takes up less volume compared to other varieties
In the industry, the sweet cherry variety Annushka is very much appreciated, because after the separation of the stone, the integrity of the appearance and pulp does not suffer, the shape and inner shell are preserved. Harvesting is thereby accelerated, making harvesting easy. With an increase in speed, the presentation is preserved. Also, the characteristic of the sweet cherry variety Annushka is distinguished by a tasting score of 4.9 points on a 5-point scale.
The Annushka variety is distinguished by high frost resistance. It can withstand up to -35 0 С. Annushka is also able to survive even a severe drought. Due to the plasticity of the crown, sweet cherry is self-fertile, retains its taste under any climatic changes.
The flowering period most often affects mid-spring. Within a short period of time, the fruits ripen. It is important to harvest quickly as everything will go bad in 1-2 weeks. The tree does not tolerate stagnant groundwater, therefore planting and harvesting should be in an area where the waters do not come close to the soil.
Sweet cherry Annushka blooms faster with enough light. It is necessary to place it for quick ripening on the southern slope. If it rains in the summer, it is important to provide the berries with a flow of warm air. For this, trees should be planted in an open area. Suitable pollinators for Annushka cherries are those trees that are considered best for flowers:
There is no need to resort to special pollination methods, since Annushka's cherry is self-fertile.
Trees give a rich harvest when cherry seedlings are bought in the fall and have managed to survive the cold. "Hardened", they will only need to moisten the soil three times a year. It is enough to pour only 35 liters of water into the ditch around Annushka's seedling. One-year-old and two-year-old cherry trees need to be tied up, and placed 3-4 m apart. Then the harvest will be in 2-3 years. Sweet cherries bear fruit for a long time, as a rule, for several decades. The first berries appear in May, although they bloom even in March-April.
Annushka berries are used in industry by farming companies - for spinning for sale. Various dressings, drinks and preservatives are also made from cherries. The Annushka variety is often used in cosmetic medicine.
The Annushka variety tolerates diseases quite well. If the care is poorly performed, such difficulties arise:
Also, the cherry tree can suffer from various pests. In comparison with other varieties, Annushka rarely suffers from damage to the bark and leaves, however, it is important to carry out prevention for the longevity of the tree.
Despite all the advantages of Annushka, the sweet cherry variety has some disadvantages, although, in comparison with the advantages, they are practically invisible. It will never grow in swampy areas and humid climates. For example, in the north of Russia, sweet cherry will grow better than in the south, and it is quite difficult for her to endure coccomycosis.
Before planting, cherry seedlings should be stored in a basement in the cold. Planting is carried out in the fall, when the trees are still young, capable of withstanding cold down to -3 0 C. For other recommendations, all details are discussed below.
It is best to plant in late autumn, but if this is not possible, Annushka's cherries can be buried in a snowdrift.
For a successful planting, you need to choose a place where cherries will be nearby. They should serve as pollinators. Other plants can be planted only 5-7 meters away. It is advisable to dig deep holes for backfilling with sawdust and grass.
Cherry varieties that are considered early in bloom can be planted next to cherries, which are a pollinator. It is not recommended to plant light red cherries, late and winter. You can not engage in the cultivation of flowering plants near the fruit tree.
Young seedlings are used as planting material. Fertilizer is also purchased, which is poured into the tree hole. The pit should have parameters up to half a meter deep and almost a meter wide.
Immediately after digging a hole, you need to fill the bottom with manure (20-25 kg). During the winter, the fertilizer settles down. The tree can be planted in early spring. Planting and caring for Annushka's cherries also consists in the choice of nitrates. Agronomists select the necessary substances for each region separately.
The distance between the seedlings is 3-4 m. For growth, insert a stake 1 m in height. The hole around the tree should hold up to 8 liters of water.
After a year or two, Annushka's long branches are shortened to the length of medium ones. Thus, the fruiting of the sweet cherry will be better. The algorithm is described in detail in the video:
After planting, it is important not to forget to care for the cherries:
Next comes the preparation for winter. In October, cracks in the skeletal branches are cleaned with a garden knife. Cherry trunks are treated with a 3% solution of copper sulfate. The wounds are covered with garden varnish.
Most often, agronomists are faced with the following problems:
Weevil - a beetle that eats leaves and gnaws fruits
It infects the plant with a fungus
A month and a half before harvesting, you need to process the leaves with "Decis". It is important to remove fallen leaves and rotten fruits in time.
The stalk gnaws through the fruit
It promotes drying of fruits and infection with fungal diseases.
It is necessary to remove the damaged cherries and process the remains with "Metaphos"
Cherry shoot moth is very dangerous in its effect
Because of it, the tree dries up, buds and leaves fall off. It damages the entire "green" part of the cherry
You can get rid of it only with the help of "Karbofos"
Sweet cherry Annushka is really the best variety for private traders and farmers. It is useful, the pulp is crispy, sweet. The dessert taste allows you to prepare many delicacies from it. Undemanding care, climatic conditions make it in demand in almost any region and in the private food sector.
Cherries are demanding on soil, heat and light. Prefers organic-rich air and moisture permeable soils, does not tolerate stagnant waters. The foothill zones are very suitable for growing sweet cherries. She is thermophilic, so she succeeds well in the Crimea, the Caucasus, Moldova, southern Ukraine, and southern Kazakhstan.
For sweet cherries, the middle parts of warm slopes with a southeastern and southwestern exposure, closed from the prevailing winds, are suitable. On the plains, it is severely damaged by frost and cannot be recommended for industrial cultivation. But in home gardening, it is cultivated under such conditions, insulating the stem. Cherry is not suitable for areas with a close occurrence of groundwater, as well as flooded places.
When planting seedlings, the rule common to all stone fruit species is observed - the root collar (not to be confused with the grafting site) is not deepened. It is best to plant during the period when the plant is resting - in spring or autumn. Before planting, it is advisable to dip the roots of a seedling with an open root system in a “talker” (a thick solution of clay with a mullein) to heal the damage.
A prerequisite for good survival of young cherries is pruning by a third of the length of all shoots. This must be done in order to balance the growth of the seedling in the first year after planting. After all, his roots are severely damaged, and if you do not prune, the plant that has started to grow will draw nutrients from the bark, which will greatly weaken the cherry seedling.
Planting is carried out in a small mound, or flush with the ground, in order to prevent the accumulation of flood waters. When planting, each layer of soil is spilled abundantly, and after the completion of planting work, the upper level is abundantly mulched with plant residues, or the sod is returned (in this case, at the beginning of work, the upper sod layer is carefully laid on the litter). In traditional agricultural technology, it is recommended to keep the land around young plantings of sweet cherries under fallow, but in the practice of natural farming, bare land is not welcomed due to soil erosion and drying out.
For natural protection of cherries from coccomycosis, it is useful to plant lilies of the valley in the trunk circles (cherries also like this neighborhood, by the way). These ground covers are somewhat aggressive - although they do not grow immediately, but with age they can run away from the allotted place. To restrain their growth, it is better to immediately dig in the curb tape, or provide for the laying of paths from slabs and other restraints. Try to do this in the first years of the tree's life, so as not to disturb the cherry roots later.
It is not uncommon for amateur plots to see cherry trees a la pyramidal poplar, where the entire crop fled to the periphery to the crown, and the owners are simply afraid to harvest it. Therefore, it is paramount when growing cherry trees to form a crown from a very young age, since sweet cherry is distinguished by strong growth and weak shoot formation.
When pruning young cherries, they try to give the tree a sparse-tiered shape on a trunk of 50 cm.It is advisable to leave 3-4 branches in each tier when laying the crown, and make the distance between the tiers about 50 cm.When the seedling height reaches 3-4 m, the guide is taken away from using a tenderloin on a weak lateral branch.
In the first 5 years after planting, a strong shortening of shoots is used, the main purpose of which is to reduce growth and provoke branching. At the same time, weak branches up to 20 cm are not shortened, and excess branches and competitors of the conductors (the so-called wen or tops) are removed to the ring.
Pruning of branches at a fruiting age is not used; if necessary, thinning and sanitary pruning is carried out. In an aging garden, when no growth is observed for a couple of years, a gradual rejuvenating pruning is allowed: skeletal branches are cut off with transfer to strong lateral branches of 2-3 years old.
Well, if you missed the formation time and the crown ran high up, pick up a hacksaw with a stepladder and study the tree reduction scheme https://ekosad-vsem.ru/obrezka-chereshni-dlya-novichkov-chema/
Separately, in the care of cherries, it is worth noting the pre-winter insulation of trunks in windy and unprotected plain zones. Preparation for wintering cherries is carried out mainly after the first snow, when leaves stuck in frost begin to drop. The bole and part of the skeletal branches of the tree are wrapped with agrofiber or cardboard. Therefore, be prepared for the fact that for the first couple of years it is extremely necessary to warm cherry seedlings in windy open areas for the winter.
And the last thing: the fruits of a sweet cherry are eagerly pecked by birds (where, in fact, the Latin name "bird cherry" came from). Therefore, the correct reduced crown formation will facilitate the task of protecting the crop - it will be easier to put a protective net on the tree to protect the cherries from birds. All and sundry peck berries - starlings, titmouses, and even their chicks.
There is also a popular way of protection - onions. 4-5 large bulbs are cut in half and fastened between the branches of the tree.
Here is a short summary of all the information on how to choose cherries for planting. Even if these data do not seem new for "advanced" gardeners, this is only a form, convenient for beginners, given in the table. The information will allow you to determine your favorite varieties of cherries by a photo with a name and description. We hope it will be easier for you to navigate when choosing cherry varieties for a new garden. Good luck with this difficult undertaking!
Used materials from VNIISPK (All-Russian Research Institute for Breeding Fruit Crops) and the sources indicated on the page "recommend"